2019

Guanabenz Reverses a Key Behavioral Change Caused by Latent Toxoplasmosis in Mice by Reducing Neuroinflammation. Martynowicz J, Augusto L, Wek RC, Boehm SL, Sullivan WJ Jr MBio 2019 Apr 30:10(2)

Loss of Nmp4 optimizes osteogenic metabolism and secretion to enhance bone quality. Shao Y, Wichern E, Childress PJ, Adaway M, Misra J, Klunk A, Burr DB, Wek RC, Mosley AL, Liu Y, Robling AG, Brustovestsky N, Hamilton J, Jacobs K, Vashishth D, Stayrook KR, Allen MR, Wallace JM, Bidwell JP. Am J Phsiol Endocrinol Metab. 2019 May 1:316(5):E749-E772

2018

Effects of PERK eIF2a Kinase Inhibitor against Toxoplasma gondii. Augusto L, Martynowicz J, Staschke KA, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr

Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 2018 Oct 24:62(11)

 

Role of eIF2a Kinases in Translational Control and Adaptation to Cellular Stress. 

Wek RC Cold Spring Harbor Persepect Biol. 2018 Jul 2:10(7) Review 

Time-resolved analysis of amino acid stress identifies eIF2 phosphorylation as necessary to inhibit mTORC1 activity in liver.

Nikonorova IA, Mirek ET, Signore CC, Goudie MP, Wek RC, Anthony TG  J Biol Chem. 2018 Apr 6:293(14):5005-5015

Inhibition of Sec61-dependant translocation by mycolactone uncouples the integrated stress response from ER stress, driving cytotoxicity via translational activation of ATF4. Ogbechi J, Hall BS, Sbarrato T, Tauton J, Willis AE, Wek RC, Simmons RE. Cell Death Dis 2018 Mar14:9(3):397

Translational control of a human CDKN1A mRNA splice variant regulates the fate of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes. 

Colliert AE, Spandau DF, Wek RC Mol Biol Cell. 2018 Jan:29(1):29-41

2017

Inhibiting the Plasmodium eIF2a Kinase PK4 Prevents Artemisinin-Induced Latency. Zhang M, Gallego-Delgado J, Fernandez-Arias C, Waters NC, Rodriguez A, Tsuji M, Wek RC, Nussenzweig V, Sullivan WJ Jr. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Dec 13:22(6):766-776

Translational Control in the Latency of Apicomplexan Parasites. Holmes MJ, Augusto LDS, Zhang M, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Trends Parasitol. 2017 Sep 20. S1471-4922(17)30211-8. *Review.

 

Function of inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase isoform α (IBTKα) in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis links autophagy and the unfolded protein response.  Willy JA, Young SK, Mosley AL, Gawrieh S, Stevens JL, Masuoka HC, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2017 Aug 25;292(34):14050-14065

 

Improving Combination Osteoporosis Therapy in a Preclinical Model of Heightened Osteoanabolism. Shao Y, Hernandez-Buquer S, Childress P, Stayrook KR, Alvarez MB, Davis H, Plotkin LI, He Y, Condon KW, Burr DB, Warden SJ, Robling AG, Yang FC, Wek RC, Allen MR, Bidwell JP.  Endocrinology. 2017 Sep 1;158(9):2722-2740.

 

Human Keratinocyte Differentiation Requires Translational Control by the eIF2α Kinase GCN2.  Collier AE, Wek RC, Spandau DF.  J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Sep;137(9):1924-1934.

 

Role of activating transcription factor 4 in the hepatic response to amino acid depletion by asparaginase.  Al-Baghdadi RJT, Nikonorova IA, Mirek ET, Wang Y, Park J, Belden WJ, Wek RC, Anthony TG.  Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 28;7(1):1272.

 

Dietary Methionine Restriction Regulates Liver Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression Independently of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Phosphorylation in Mice.  Pettit AP, Jonsson WO, Bargoud AR, Mirek ET, Peelor FF 3rd, Wang Y, Gettys TW, Kimball SR, Miller BF, Hamilton KL, Wek RC, Anthony TG.  J Nutr. 2017 Jun;147(6):1031-1040.

 

 

Obesity challenges the hepatoprotective function of the integrated stress response to asparaginase exposure in mice.  Nikonorova IA, Al-Baghdadi RJT, Mirek ET, Wang Y, Goudie MP, Wetstein BB, Dixon JL, Hine C, Mitchell JR, Adams CM, Wek RC, Anthony TG.  J Biol Chem. 2017 Apr 21;292(16):6786-6798.

2016

Upstream open reading frames differentially regulate gene-specific translation in the Integrated Stress Response.Young SK, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2016 Aug 12;291(33):16927-35. *Review

Nuclear Matrix Protein 4 Is a Novel Regulator of Ribosome Biogenesis and Controls the Unfolded Protein Response via Repression of Gadd34 Expression. Young SK, Shao Y, Bidwell JP, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2016 Jun 24;291(26):13780-8. 

Translation Regulation of the Glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene EPRS through Bypass of Upstream Open Reading Frames with Noncanonical Initiation Codons. Young SK, Baird TD, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2016 May 13;291(20):10824-35.

General control nonderepressible 2 deletion predisposes to asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in mice. Phillipson-Weiner L, Mirek ET, Wang Y, McAuliffe WG, Wek RC, Anthony TG. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jun 1;310(11):G1061-70.

Transcription factor ATF4 directs basal and stress-induced gene expression in the unfolded protein response and cholesterol metabolism in the liver. Fusakio ME, Willy JA, Wang Y, Mirek ET, Al Baghdadi RJ, Adams CM, Anthony TG, Wek RC. Mol Biol Cell. 2016 May 1;27(9):1536-51

Ribosome Elongation Stall Directs Gene-specific Translation in the Integrated Stress Response. Young SK, Palam LR, Wu C, Sachs MS, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2016 Mar 18;291(12):6546-58. 

2015

Ribosome Reinitiation Directs Gene-specific Translation and Regulates the Integrated Stress Response. Young SK, Willy JA, Wu C, Sachs MS, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2015 Nov 20;290(47):28257-71. 

 

Guanabenz repurposed as an antiparasitic with activity against acute and latent toxoplasmosis. Benmerzouga I, Checkley LA, Ferdig MT, Arrizabalaga G, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov;59(11):6939-45. 

 

Translational Repression Protects Human Keratinocytes from UVB-Induced Apoptosis through a Discordant eIF2 Kinase Stress Response. Collier AE, Wek RC, Spandau DF. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Oct;135(10):2502-11. 

 

CHOP links endoplasmic reticulum stress to NF-κB activation in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Willy JA, Young SK, Stevens JL, Masuoka HC, Wek RC. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Jun 15;26(12):2190-204. 

 

GCN2 is required to increase fibroblast growth factor 21 and maintain hepatic triglyceride homeostasis during asparaginase treatment. Wilson GJ, Lennox BA, She P, Mirek ET, Al Baghdadi RJ, Fusakio ME, Dixon JL, Henderson GC, Wek RC, Anthony TG. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb 15;308(4):E283-93. 

 

Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Gao R, Chen S, Kobayashi M, Yu H, Zhang Y, Wan Y, Young SK, Soltis A, Yu M, Vemula S, Fraenkel E, Cantor A, Antipin Y, Xu Y, Yoder MC, Wek RC, Ellis SR, Kapur R, Zhu X, Liu Y. Stem Cells. 2015 Mar;33(3):925-38. 

2014

Crystal structures of GCN2 protein kinase C-terminal domains suggest regulatory differences in yeast and mammals. He H, Singh I, Wek SA, Dey S, Baird TD, Wek RC, Georgiadis MM. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 23;289(21):15023-34. 

 

Selective mRNA translation during eIF2 phosphorylation induces expression of IBTKα. Baird TD, Palam LR, Fusakio ME, Willy JA, Davis CM, McClintick JN, Anthony TG, Wek RC. Mol Biol Cell. 2014 May;25(10):1686-97. 

 

Evolutionarily conserved IMPACT impairs various stress responses that require GCN1 for activating the eIF2 kinase GCN2. Cambiaghi TD, Pereira CM, Shanmugam R, Bolech M, Wek RC, Sattlegger E, Castilho BA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Jan 10;443(2):592-7. 

 

GCN2-like eIF2α kinase manages the amino acid starvation response in Toxoplasma gondii. Konrad C, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Int J Parasitol. 2014 Feb;44(2):139-46. 

2013

General control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase protects oligodendrocytes and white matter during branched-chain amino acid deficiency in mice. She P, Bunpo P, Cundiff JK, Wek RC, Harris RA, Anthony TG. J Biol Chem. 2013 Oct 25;288(43):31250-60. 

 

The eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase GCN2 protects against hepatotoxicity during asparaginase treatment. Wilson GJ, Bunpo P, Cundiff JK, Wek RC, Anthony TG. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov 1;305(9):E1124-33. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00080.2013. 

 

CHOP induces activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) to trigger apoptosis in response to perturbations in protein homeostasis. Teske BF, Fusakio ME, Zhou D, Shan J, McClintick JN, Kilberg MS, Wek RC. Mol Biol Cell. 2013 Aug;24(15):2477-90. 

 

The unfolded protein response in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii features translational and transcriptional control. Joyce BR, Tampaki Z, Kim K, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Eukaryot Cell. 2013 Jul;12(7):979-89. 

 

Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) enhances bortezomib-induced death in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-null cells by a c-MYC-dependent induction of the unfolded protein response. Babcock JT, Nguyen HB, He Y, Hendricks JW, Wek RC, Quilliam LA. J Biol Chem. 2013 May 31;288(22):15687-98. 

 

Inhibitors of eIF2α dephosphorylation slow replication and stabilize latency in Toxoplasma gondii. Konrad C, Queener SF, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Apr;57(4):1815-22. 

2012

TXNIP switches tracks toward a terminal UPR. Anthony TG, Wek RC. Cell Metab. 2012 Aug 8;16(2):135-7. 

 

Brain-specific disruption of the eIF2α kinase PERK decreases ATF4 expression and impairs behavioral flexibility. Trinh MA, Kaphzan H, Wek RC, Pierre P, Cavener DR, Klann E. Cell Rep. 2012 Jun 28;1(6):676-88. 

 

Eukaryotic initiation factor 2 phosphorylation and translational control in metabolism. Baird TD, Wek RC. Adv Nutr. 2012 May 1;3(3):307-21.  *Review.

 

Transcriptional repression of ATF4 gene by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) differentially regulates integrated stress response. Dey S, Savant S, Teske BF, Hatzoglou M, Calkhoven CF, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2012 Jun 22;287(26):21936-49. 

 

Physical and functional interaction between ribosomal protein L11 and the tumor suppressor ARF. Dai MS, Challagundla KB, Sun XX, Palam LR, Zeng SX, Wek RC, Lu H. J Biol Chem. 2012 May 18;287(21):17120-9. 

2011

The eIF2 kinase PERK and the integrated stress response facilitate activation of ATF6 during endoplasmic reticulum stress. Teske BF, Wek SA, Bunpo P, Cundiff JK, McClintick JN, Anthony TG, Wek RC. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Nov;22(22):4390-405. 

 

A GCN2-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase increases the viability of extracellular Toxoplasma gondii parasites. Konrad C, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Eukaryot Cell. 2011 Nov;10(11):1403-12. 

 

Mechanisms of translational regulation by a human eIF5-mimic protein. Singh CR, Watanabe R, Zhou D, Jennings MD, Fukao A, Lee B, Ikeda Y, Chiorini JA, Campbell SG, Ashe MP, Fujiwara T, Wek RC, Pavitt GD, Asano K. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Oct;39(19):8314-28. 

 

Phosphorylation of eIF2 facilitates ribosomal bypass of an inhibitory upstream ORF to enhance CHOP translation. Palam LR, Baird TD, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 1;286(13):10939-49. 

 

Methods for analyzing eIF2 kinases and translational control in the unfolded protein response. Teske BF, Baird TD, Wek RC. Methods Enzymol. 2011;490:333-56. 

 

Translation control is critical during acute and chronic stages of toxoplasmosis infection. Joyce BR, Konrad C, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011 Jan;9(1):1-3. No abstract available.

2010

The eIF2 kinase GCN2 is essential for the murine immune system to adapt to amino acid deprivation by asparaginase. Bunpo P, Cundiff JK, Reinert RB, Wek RC, Aldrich CJ, Anthony TG. J Nutr. 2010 Nov;140(11):2020-7. 

 

Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2{alpha} promotes the extracellular survival of obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Joyce BR, Queener SF, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 5;107(40):17200-5. 

 

Both transcriptional regulation and translational control of ATF4 are central to the integrated stress response. Dey S, Baird TD, Zhou D, Palam LR, Spandau DF, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 22;285(43):33165-74. 

 

Selective control of amino acid metabolism by the GCN2 eIF2 kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Zaborske JM, Wu X, Wek RC, Pan T. BMC Biochem. 2010 Aug 4;11:29. 

 

How do tumours adapt to nutrient stress? Wek RC, Staschke KA. EMBO J. 2010 Jun 16;29(12):1946-7.  *Review 

 

Obesity: stressing about unfolded proteins. Wek RC, Anthony TG. Nat Med. 2010 Apr;16(4):374-6.  *Review

 

Integration of general amino acid control and target of rapamycin (TOR) regulatory pathways in nitrogen assimilation in yeast. Staschke KA, Dey S, Zaborske JM, Palam LR, McClintick JN, Pan T, Edenberg HJ, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2010 May 28;285(22):16893-911. 

2009

GCN2 protein kinase is required to activate amino acid deprivation responses in mice treated with the anti-cancer agent L-asparaginase. Bunpo P, Dudley A, Cundiff JK, Cavener DR, Wek RC, Anthony TG. J Biol Chem. 2009 Nov 20;284(47):32742-9.

 

A bifunctional intronic element regulates the expression of the arginine/lysine transporter Cat-1 via mechanisms involving the purine-rich element binding protein A (Pur alpha). Huang CC, Chiribau CB, Majumder M, Chiang CM, Wek RC, Kelm RJ Jr, Khalili K, Snider MD, Hatzoglou M. J Biol Chem. 2009 Nov 20;284(47):32312-20. 

 

Beta testing the antioxidant function of eIF2alpha phosphorylation in diabetes prevention. Wek RC, Anthony TG. Cell Metab. 2009 Jul;10(1):1-2. 

 

Genome-wide analysis of tRNA charging and activation of the eIF2 kinase Gcn2p. Zaborske JM, Narasimhan J, Jiang L, Wek SA, Dittmar KA, Freimoser F, Pan T, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 11;284(37):25254-67. 

 

Methyltransferase protein synthesis is reduced in CXXC finger protein 1-deficient embryonic stem cells. Butler JS, Palam LR, Tate CM, Sanford JR, Wek RC, Skalnik DG. DNA Cell Biol. 2009 May;28(5):223-31. 

2008

Stress response pathways in protozoan parasites. Vonlaufen N, Kanzok SM, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. Cell Microbiol. 2008 Dec;10(12):2387-99.  *Review.

 

Int6/eIF3e promotes general translation and Atf1 abundance to modulate Sty1 MAPK-dependent stress response in fission yeast. Udagawa T, Nemoto N, Wilkinson CR, Narashimhan J, Jiang L, Watt S, Zook A, Jones N, Wek RC, Bähler J, Asano K. J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 8;283(32):22063-75. 

 

Translation regulation by eukaryotic initiation factor-2 kinases in the development of latent cysts in Toxoplasma gondii. Narasimhan J, Joyce BR, Naguleswaran A, Smith AT, Livingston MR, Dixon SE, Coppens I,Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Jr. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 13;283(24):16591-601. 

 

Different effect of proteasome inhibition on vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus replication. Neznanov N, Dragunsky EM, Chumakov KM, Neznanova L, Wek RC, Gudkov AV, Banerjee AK. PLoS One. 2008 Apr 2;3(4):e1887.

 

Translational control of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) expression by PRL3 phosphatase. Liang F, Luo Y, Dong Y, Walls CD, Liang J, Jiang HY, Sanford JR, Wek RC, Zhang ZY. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 18;283(16):10339-46.

 

Phosphorylation of eIF2 directs ATF5 translational control in response to diverse stress conditions. Zhou D, Palam LR, Jiang L, Narasimhan J, Staschke KA, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2008 Mar 14;283(11):7064-73. 

 

The role of nitric oxide and the unfolded protein response in cytokine-induced beta-cell death. Chambers KT, Unverferth JA, Weber SM, Wek RC, Urano F, Corbett JA. Diabetes. 2008 Jan;57(1):124-32.  

 

The unfolded protein response of B-lymphocytes: PERK-independent development of antibody-secreting cells. Gass JN, Jiang HY, Wek RC, Brewer JW. Mol Immunol. 2008 Feb;45(4):1035-43. 

2007

Translational control and the unfolded protein response. Wek RC, Cavener DR. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007 Dec;9(12):2357-71. *Review.

 

The eukaryotic initiation factor-2 kinase pathway facilitates differential GADD45a expression in response to environmental stress. Jiang HY, Jiang L, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9;282(6):3755-65. 

 

A feedback transcriptional mechanism controls the level of the arginine/lysine transporter cat-1 during amino acid starvation. Lopez AB, Wang C, Huang CC, Yaman I, Li Y, Chakravarty K, Johnson PF, Chiang CM, Snider MD, Wek RC, Hatzoglou M. Biochem J. 2007 Feb 15;402(1):163-73.

2006

EXtENDINg beta cell survival by UPRegulating ATF4 translation. Wek RC, Anthony TG. Cell Metab. 2006 Nov;4(5):333-4. *Review

 

Role of glutamine depletion in directing tissue-specific nutrient stress responses to L-asparaginase. Reinert RB, Oberle LM, Wek SA, Bunpo P, Wang XP, Mileva I, Goodwin LO, Aldrich CJ, Durden DL, McNurlan MA, Wek RC, Anthony TG. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 20;281(42):31222-33. 

 

Impaired growth and neurological abnormalities in branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-deficient mice. Joshi MA, Jeoung NH, Obayashi M, Hattab EM, Brocken EG, Liechty EA, Kubek MJ, Vattem KM, Wek RC, Harris RA. Biochem J. 2006 Nov 15;400(1):153-62.

 

Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor-2 by PKR mediates protein synthesis inhibition in the mouse brain during status epilepticus. Carnevalli LS, Pereira CM, Jaqueta CB, Alves VS, Paiva VN, Vattem KM, Wek RC, Mello LE, Castilho BA. Biochem J. 2006 Jul 1;397(1):187-94.

2005

Stress-activated protein kinase pathway functions to support protein synthesis and translational adaptation in response to environmental stress in fission yeast. Dunand-Sauthier I, Walker CA, Narasimhan J, Pearce AK, Wek RC, Humphrey TC.

Eukaryot Cell. 2005 Nov;4(11):1785-93.

 

Coping with stress: eIF2 kinases and translational control. Wek RC, Jiang HY, Anthony TG. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Feb;34(Pt 1):7-11. *Review.

IMPACT, a protein preferentially expressed in the mouse brain, binds GCN1 and inhibits GCN2 activation. Pereira CM, Sattlegger E, Jiang HY, Longo BM, Jaqueta CB, Hinnebusch AG, Wek RC, Mello LE, Castilho BA. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 5;280(31):28316-23. 

Uncharged tRNA and sensing of amino acid deficiency in mammalian piriform cortex.

Hao S, Sharp JW, Ross-Inta CM, McDaniel BJ, Anthony TG, Wek RC, Cavener DR, McGrath BC, Rudell JB, Koehnle TJ, Gietzen DW. Science. 2005 Mar 18;307(5716):1776-8

Phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2alpha) reduces protein synthesis and enhances apoptosis in response to proteasome inhibition. Jiang HY, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 8;280(14):14189-202. 

2004

Differential activation of eIF2 kinases in response to cellular stresses in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Zhan K, Narasimhan J, Wek RC.

Genetics. 2004 Dec;168(4):1867-75.

GCN2 phosphorylation of eIF2alpha activates NF-kappaB in response to UV irradiation. Jiang HY, Wek RC. Biochem J.

2005 Jan 15;385(Pt 2):371-80.

Reinitiation involving upstream ORFs regulates ATF4 mRNA translation in mammalian cells. Vattem KM, Wek RC.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 3;101(31):11269-74. 

Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome: clinical, genetic, and functional study of EIF2AK3 mutations and suggestion of genetic heterogeneity.

Senée V, Vattem KM, Delépine M, Rainbow LA, Haton C, Lecoq A, Shaw NJ, Robert JJ, Rooman R, Diatloff-Zito C, Michaud JL, Bin-Abbas B, Taha D, Zabel B, Franceschini P, Topaloglu AK, Lathrop GM, Barrett TG, Nicolino M, Wek RC, Julier C. Diabetes. 2004 Jul;53(7):1876-83.

Preservation of liver protein synthesis during dietary leucine deprivation occurs at the expense of skeletal muscle mass in mice deleted for eIF2 kinase GCN2. Anthony TG, McDaniel BJ, Byerley RL, McGrath BC, Cavener DR, McNurlan MA, Wek RC.

J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 27;279(35):36553-61. 

Dimerization is required for activation of eIF2 kinase Gcn2 in response to diverse environmental stress conditions.

Narasimhan J, Staschke KA, Wek RC. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 28;279(22):22820-32. 

Parasite-specific eIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor-2) kinase required for stress-induced translation control.

Sullivan WJ Jr, Narasimhan J, Bhatti MM, Wek RC.

Biochem J. 2004 Jun 1;380(Pt 2):523-31.

Activating transcription factor 3 is integral to the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase stress response.

Jiang HY, Wek SA, McGrath BC, Lu D, Hai T, Harding HP, Wang X, Ron D, Cavener DR, Wek RC. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Feb;24(3):1365-77.